People groups in Russia Statistics about Russia

russfed.gif (23512 bytes)



Geography:  Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
total: 17,075,200 sq km
land: 16,995,800 sq km
water: 79,400 sq km
Area—comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total: 19,917 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China
(south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km,
North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km,
Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline: 37,653 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia;
subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea
coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia;
uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Mount El'brus 5,633 m
Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal,
and many strategic minerals, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 42% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development;
volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula
Environment—current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric
plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways
and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of
agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination
Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
Geography—note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in
relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and
climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

Population: 146,861,022 (July 1998 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 14,756,787; female 14,189,564)
15-64 years: 68% (male 48,138,173; female 51,366,412)
65 years and over: 12% (male 5,699,334; female 12,710,752) (July 1998 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.31% (1998 est.)
Birth rate: 9.57 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)
Death rate: 14.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female (1998 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 23.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.97 years
male: 58.61 years
female: 71.64 years (1998 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%
Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
Languages: Russian, other
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

Country conventional name: Russian Federation
Government type: federation
National capital: Moscow

Economy—overview: Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural resources, a well-educated
population, and a diverse, but declining, industrial base, continues to experience formidable
difficulties in moving from its old centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. After
seven consecutive years of contraction 1990-96 in which GDP fell by one-third, GDP grew by
0.4% in 1997, according to official statistics. Moscow continued to make strides in its battle
against inflation, which fell to 11%, half the 1996 rate. The central government made good on most
back wages owed public-sector employees—including the military—although the stock of wage
arrears to employees of private enterprises remained large. Privatization revenues increased
significantly, largely on the strength of a few high-profile tenders, such as that of
telecommunications giant Svyazinvest. On the downside, Moscow continued to struggle with a
severe fiscal imbalance. Lagging tax collections led the government to adopt a revised budget in
spring 1997 that cut spending by about 20% despite protests from the legislature. Russia's
traditional trade surplus continued to contract—largely because of soft international commodity
prices—and Moscow's WTrO accession made only halting progress. Although President
YEL'TSIN brought in a new economic team early in 1997, key structural reform initiatives
continue to move slowly. A revised tax code remains stuck in the Duma, while little progress is
being made on agricultural land reform. Small business development has lagged. Prospects for a
return to robust growth have been set back by the spillover from Asia's financial turmoil, which hit
Russia hard during the last quarter of 1997. Moscow at first tried to both support the ruble and
keep interest rates down, but this policy proved unsustainable, and in early December 1997 the
Central Bank let interest rates rise sharply. As the year ended, Russian authorities were attempting
to put the best face on the financial situation, while at the same time scaling back their previous
optimistic growth projections for 1998 to 1%-2%. Because of Russia's severe macroeconomic
constraints, resources allocated to the military sector have declined sharply since the implosion of
the USSR in December 1991.
GDP: purchasing power parity—$692 billion (1997 est.)
GDP—real growth rate: 0.4% (1997 est.)
GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$4,700 (1997 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 39%
services: 54% (1996)
Inflation rate—consumer price index: 11% (1997 est.)
Labor force:
total: 66 million (1997)
by occupation: NA
Unemployment rate: 9% (1997 est.) with considerable additional underemployment
revenues: $59 billion
expenditures: $70 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals,
and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space
vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment;
agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and
transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs,
Agriculture—products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits (because of its
northern location does not grow citrus, cotton, tea, and other warm climate products); meat, milk
total value: $86.7 billion (1997)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals,
chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries
total value: $66.9 billion (1997)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar,
semifinished metal products
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries
Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $15 billion drawn (1990-97)
note: US commitments, including Ex-Im, $15 billion (1990-96); other countries, ODA and OOF
bilateral commitments (1990-96), $125 billion
Currency: 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks
More Information About Russia
More Information About Russia (from CIA)


Russia1.jpg (9500 bytes) Russia2.jpg (17152 bytes) russia3.jpg (11109 bytes) russia4.jpg (15043 bytes)


Buryat   AD2000

Chukchi   AD2000

Crimean Tatar    Bethany

Nogay Tatar   Bethany

Kazan Tatar    Bethany

More Russian People Groups   AD2000Bethany


© World Harvest Now, Inc. 1996-2002